China’s industry is responsible for approximately 70 percent of the nation’s total energy use. Heavy industry also accounts for a very high share of China’s GHG emissions. The iron and steel sector and the cement sector are responsible for 53 percent of industrial final energy consumption and 62 percent of direct industrial CO2 emissions. The high emissions are related to coal being used heavily as fuel in both sectors as well as the process emissions from calcination in cement production. The Chinese Government is making concerted efforts to address the high energy-intensity and outdated technology in the industry sector.